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Research Fellow. Graduate of the International Black Sea University
Good news is less scandalous and as it is the rule, they are spread hardly. Anyway, it is necessary to point out, that in 2018, the percentage of population, who lived in poverty has reached the historic minimum and unfortunately there was no an appropriate reaction of the International community on this issue.
During the last 30 yearsperiod, the number of the people, who lived in poverty decreased for 1 billion. However, in contemporary period, more than 750 million people, spent daily less than $1,90, but their number in 1990 was reaching 1/3 of the world`s population (In both cases, income was calculated by PPP method, in constant prices for 2011.) China has huge contribution in the formatting this common picture. If Income per person in the whole world (in constant prices for 2010) within 1990-2017 years has been increased by 48%, from $7170 to $10 635, in China income growth per capita within the same period reached 1000%, from $730 to $7300. In Comparison with China, comparatively modest, but anyway impressive growth for 300% took place in India, where average income was increased for 4 times till $2000.
With regard to Georgia, within 1994-2017 years, income in the country per capita has been increased from $960 to $4300.
During the discussion “Global Poverty”, the main problematic region still remains Africa. Asia is moving toward the progress by the rapid steps, the progress is noticeable in Latino America too, but no radical economic growth has been fixed in Africa. Within the 1990-2015, the number of inhabitances in African continent, who lived in extremely poverty has been increased from 278 to 413 million. But this happened first of all because of population growth and not by the percentage indicator. By 2030, it is expected that from every ten African, who will live in extremely poverty, 9 will come on the share of Sub Saharan Africa.
The reducing of the Global poverty does not mean that socio-economic conditions of all countries have been improved. Besides of the fact, that 750 million people still remain in poverty, situation within the last 5 years has become extremely worse in such states as Venezuela and Syria. The problems have increased in Egypt and Libya too. At the same time, the similar situation is often deteriorating in separate one state too, when the gap related to the economic income between rich and poor parts of population in one concrete country is increasing, but, together with the economic growth in particular state, in the long term perspectives those people (poor) also have the profit. Two centuries ago, in the beginning of the industrial revolution, in the extreme poverty lived about 80% of the world population, many of them were spending their lives under slavery conditions. In contemporary period, situation is radically changed and even in the rapidly developing country can be found the people, who’s conditions are bad. But, in the framework of long-term policy, all people can take benefits.
Thus, nowadays, situation is radically different and despite the fact, that the nearest future does not guarantee the full elimination of poverty, but it makes it possible the further prediction of its reduction.
Majority economists are agreed, that discussing about sentimental statistics, according to which about 26-27 richest people of our planet have more property than more than 3 billion people together – is not significant and even unfair. Together with Bill Gates, who has spent his 30 billion USD for the saving millions of children’s lives in Africa, Microsoft, Google and other different giant companies create an opportunity for the delivering knowledge and establishment of communication, from where many poor people are finding their possibilities and, in many cases, manage to avoid the poverty. Neither Bill Gates, nor Mark Zuckerberg or Elon Musk -none of them accumulated their property by colonization policy against African, Asian or Latino American people, they have created new wealth, which did not exist before and which has implemented the huge contribution in the reducing the level of poverty in the different regions of the world.
Very important role in the reducing the poverty on the global level plays the Sustainable Development Goals, which have been worked out by the leading representatives of the International democratic community. In general, The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
These 17 Goals build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals, while including new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities. The goals are interconnected – often the key to success on one will involve tackling issues more commonly associated with another.
The SDGs came into effect in January 2016, and they will continue to guide UNDP (United Nations Development Program) policy and funding until 2030. As the lead UN development agency, UNDP is uniquely placed to help implement the Goals in some 170 countries and territories.
Director of the Center for International Studies of the International Black Sea University
President of the George C. Marshall Alumni Union, Georgia – International and Security Research Center